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Measuring Instruments

1.Introduction and classification. 2. Electrical principles of operation. 3. Electrical indicating instruments-Essential features-Deflecting devices-Controlling devices-Damping devices. Moving iron instruments: Attraction type-Repulsion type-Advantages and disadvantages. Moving coil instruments: Permanent magnet type-Electrodynamic type. 6. Rectifier instruments. 7. Wattmeters: Dynamometer wattmeter-Induction wattmeters. 8. Integrating meters: Essential characteristics of energy meters-Types of energy meters. 9. Measurement of resistance: Voltmeter-ammeter method-Substitution method-Measurement of resistance by the Wheatstone bridge. 10. The Potentiometer. 11. Megger 12. Instrument transformers-Highlights-Theoretical Questions-Unsolved Examples.