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  1. In a star-connected system 

3. Two-wattmeters method is generally used to measure 3-phase power. In this method, the current coils of the two wattmeters are connected in any two lines and their potential coils to the remaining third line. The sum of the two wattmeters readings gives the total power in the circuit. If the load is balanced, then its power factor can also be calculated from these two readings. The readings of the two wattmeters are:


4.      There is a ‘floating neutral’ or ‘star’ point in an unbalanced star-connected load without neutral wire. The potential of the load star point is different from that of the generator star point. Under such conditions, the phase voltage of load is not  of the line voltage.

 5.  In a star-delta connection 

 6.      In a single-phase as well as in a three-phase system, the kVA is directly proportional to the current I. The disadvantage of a lower power factor is that the current required for a given power is very high, which fact leads to many undesirable results. The power factor may be improved by the following:

–         Static capacitors

–         Phase advancers

–         Synchronous capacitors

–         Capacitor boosters

–         High power factor motors