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E.M.F. Equation of a Transformer

Let N1 = number of turns in primary,

N2 = number of turns in secondary,

ɸm = maximum flux in the core, Wb.

= Bm × A, [where Bm is the maximum flux density in the core and A is the core area], and

f = frequency of a.c. input, Hz.

Refer Fig. 18. Since the flux increases from its zero value to maximum value ɸm in one quarter of the cycle i.e. in T/4 or 1/4f second (T  being time-period of the cycle),

Average rate of change of flux