- Construction of D.C. Machines. 2. E.m.f. equation of a generator. 3. Types of D.C. generators- Separately excited generators-Self excited generators. 4. Power division in a D.C. generator. 5. Characteristics of D.C. generators-Separately excited generator-No-load saturation characteristic (or O.C.C.)-Internal and external characteristics (or Load characteristics)-Building up the voltage of self-excited shunt generator-Shunt generator characteristics-Series generator-Compound wound generator. 6. Applications of D.C. generators-Separately excited genera motors Shunt generators-Series generators-Compound generators. 7. Direct current motor-General aspects-·Principle of operation of D.C. motor-Back or counter e.m.f.-Comparison between motor and generator action-Torque developed in a motor-Mechanical power developed by motor armature-Types of D.C. motors-Speed of a D.C. motor-Speed regulation-Motor characteristics-Comparison of D.C. motor characteristics-Summary of characteristics and applications of D.C. motors-Starting of D.C. motors. 8. Speed control of D.C. motors-Factors controlling the speed-Field control method-Rheostatic control-Voltage control. 9. Losses and efficiency of D.C. machines-Introduction-Losses-Efficiency of D.C. machines-Highlights-Objective
type questions-Theoretical questions-Unsolved examples.