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Armature Windings

The armature winding is very important element of a machine, as it directly takes part in the conversion of energy from one form into another. The requirements which a winding must meet are diverse and often of a conflicting nature. Among these requirements the following are of major importance.

  • The winding must be designed with the most advantageous utilisation of the material in respect to weight and efficiency.
  • The winding should provide the necessary mechanical, thermal and electrical strength of the machine to ensure the usual service life of 16-20 years.
  • For D.C. machines proper current collection at the commutator (i.e., absence of detrimental sparking) must be ensured.
  • According to the degree of closure produced by winding, armature windings are of the following two types:
  1. Open coil winding
  2. Closed coil winding:

The closed armature windings are of two types:

(i)                           Ring winding

(ii)                        Drum winding

In general there are two types of drum armature windings:

(i)                           Lap winding

(ii)                        Wave winding.

“Lap winding” is suitable for comparatively low voltage but high current generators
whereas “wave of winding” is used for high voltage, low current machines.

–        In ‘lap winding’ the finish of each coil is connected to the start of the next coil so that winding or commutator pitch is unity.

–        In ‘wave winding’ the finish of coil is connected to the start of another coil well away from the fixed coil.